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Shadow areas to illuminate.
It seems that a lot of things have been forgotten
Publication of the book "The ether of Albert Einstein"
This explained the stormy debates between the greatest physicists of the time to criticize this theory. It should be noted that the other four articles by Albert Einstein published at the same time did not cause any problems. This proves that it was not to the person but to the theory that physicists almost unanimously opposed. That evildoers took advantage of it to overwhelm Einstein in a very partial and unjust way for despicable reasons, no doubt, humanity is made like this, but that was not the substance of the debate.
Here is the introduction to this famous article :
“On the electrodynamics of bodies in motion.” translated into English by Meghnad Saha (1920).
It is well known that if we attempt to apply Maxwell's electrodynamics, as conceived at the present time, to moving bodies, we are led to assymetry which does not agree with observed phenomena. Let us think of the mutual action between a magnet and a conductor. The observed phenomena in this case depend only on the relative motion of the conductor and the magnet, while according to the usual conception, a distinction must be made between the cases where the one or the other of the bodies is in motion
[...] it being of course assumed that the relative motion in both of these cases is the same. this causes an electric current of the same magnitude and the same career as the electric force
Maxwell uses different equations which give the same result to the first order of magnitude.
for all coordinate systems for which the mechanical equations hold, the equivalent electrodynamical and optical equations hold also, as has already been shown for magnitudes of the first order. In the following we make these assumptions (which we shall subsequently call the Principle of Relativity)
Einstein contradicts Maxwell's equations, he does not hide it, he knows that this will be the first objection to his theory.
He keeps on :
and introduce the further assumption, —an assumption which is at the first sight quite irreconcilable with the former one— that light is propagated in vacant space, with a velocity c which is independent of the nature of motion of the emitting body.
Einstein bases his second postulate on the fact that the speed of light is independent of that of the moving body in order to deduce (without saying it) that light travels in vacuum always and everywhere at the same speed.
Here Einstein recognizes that the fact that the speed of light is an absolute constant denies Galileo's principle of relativity of motion, which he has just extended to electromagnetic phenomena.
In reality he has just mentioned the characteristic of the movement of waves which are effectively independent of the speed of the bodies which produce them because they depend solely on the characteristics of the medium in which they propagate and, where appropriate, on the speed of this environment.
These two assumptions are quite sufficient to give us a simple and consistent theory of electrodynamics of moving bodies on the basis of the Maxwellian theory for bodies at rest.
Above, Einstein announces that he does not need ether. Note that he forgot this by stating that the speed of light is a universal constant which contradicts the notion of relativity of motion.
The introduction of a "Lightäther" will be proved to be superfluous, for according to the conceptions which will be developed, we shall introduce neither a space absolutely at rest, and endowed with special properties, nor shall we associate a velocity-vector with a point in which electro-magnetic processes take place.
You have to be called Albert Einstein and have published the theory of general relativity which is revolutionizing our understanding of the universe to allow yourself such fantasies. The criticisms were valid.
Like every other theory in electrodynamics, the theory is based on the kinematics of rigid bodies; in the enunciation of every theory, we have to do with relations between rigid bodies (co-ordinate system), clocks, and electromagnetic processes. An insufficient consideration of these circumstances is the cause of difficulties with which the electrodynamics of moving bodies have to fight at present.
But Albert Einstein is fundamentally honest. While physicists refuse to reject the ether, he reflects on his side, the results he obtains with general relativity will lead him to modify his opinion on the existence or not of the ether. This is the subject of the essay "The Ether of Albert Einstein" that you can order in bookstores or find the iPUB or EDOC in launch promotion on the internet.
It is amazing that nowadays nobody knows that Einstein finally restored the ether. An ether it is true with inexplicable behavior, which makes it imprudent to speak of it. Inexplicable? Yes for the moment.
What Einstein wrote in 1905
If you ask a physicist to explain ether to you, he will either be embarrassed or he will say that ether does not exist, that it was rejected by Einstein in 1905. But, in 1921, Einstein published “The ether and the theory of relativity". After his theory of general relativity, he became aware of the problem posed by deformable space and gravitational waves. He conferred with other physicists and recognized the existence of the Lorentz ether, with no physical characteristics except immobility. An immobility that Einstein removed, if not a relative immobility in relation to the referential from which it is observed. We have found a hypothesis that could explain this mysterious movement : the speed of light would be everywhere the same, because the ether would be seen as motionless everywhere. This hypothesis is very simple, and we propose experiments that are also quite simple to verify it.
What you always wanted to know about relativity
Richard Feynman had completed his first course on quantum mechanics of which he was the greatest specialist
saying to his students: "if you think you have understood quantum mechanics, it is because I have explained it to you badly."
It was a joke, he was a joker at the same time as very intelligent and good at explaining complicated things simply.
Well we don't think it was quite a joke. The two great advances of the 20th century, quantum mechanics with Albert Einstein's article on photovoltaic phenomena (solar panels) and general relativity with the curvature of space time, have allowed gigantic advances in knowledge of the Universe, but clouded his understanding a bit.
This is paradoxical, physicists master very complicated equations which give good results but remain cautious about how to explain them.
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